Orcish language

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Language: English
Orcish
RegionBrutang
EthnicityOrcs
Native speakers
c. 160,140 speakers in total:
  • c. 86,140 native speakers (Orcs)
  • c. 74,000 second-language speakers (Goblins and Ogres) (833)
Early forms
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Orcish is the language of the Orcs, spoken by the Orcish tribes, as well as the Goblin and Ogre populations of Brutang, although the latter two may also speak the Kobold language.

Evolution from Middle Orcish[edit | edit source]

  • The consonant clusters /Pp Pt Pk Pq/ - where /P/ stands for any plosive - develop into preglottalized [ʔp ʔt ʔk ʔq].
  • Voiceless stops become aspirated, when followed by a vowel. The velar and uvular ones /kʰ qʰ/ also develop alternate pronounciations as affricates [k͡x q͡χ].
    • /ʔkʰ/ becomes [ʔ͡h]
  • Vowel shifts
    • /i ɯ u/ become [ɪ ɤ ʊ], while /iː ɯː uː/ remain [iː ɯː uː]
    • /ɛː ɔː/ become [eː oː], while /ɛ ɔ/ remain [ɛ ɔ]
    • /æi̯ æu̯ ɑi̯ ɑu̯/ become [ɛː ɐʊ̯ ɐɪ̯ ɔː]

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal <m> /m/ <n> /n/
<nd> /ⁿd/
<ŋg> /ŋ/ <nġ> /ɴ/
Stop Voiceless <p> /pʰ/ <t> /tʰ/ <c> /t͡ʃʰ/ <k> /kʰ/ [kʰ~k͡x] <q> /qʰ/ [qʰ~q͡χ] <'> /ʔ/
<'h> /ʔ͡h/
Voiced <b> /b/ <d> /d/ <j> /d͡ʒ/ <g> /g/ <ǵ> /ɢ/
Fricative Voiceless <s> /s/ <š> /ʃ/ <h> /x/ <ȟ> /χ/
Voiced <z> /z/ <ž> /ʒ/ <ǧ> /ɣ/ <ŕ> /ʁ/
Continuant <w> /w/ <l> /ł/, <ř> /ɽ/ <y> /j/ <r> /ʀ/
  • The coda nasal /n/ has the following allophones:
    • labial [m] before /p b/
    • alveolar [n] before /t d s z ɽ/
    • palatal [ɲ] before /t͡ʃ d͡ʒ ʃ ʒ j/
    • velar [ŋ] before /k g x ɣ w/
    • uvular [ɴ] before /q ɢ χ ʁ ʀ/

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Back
Unrounded Rounded
Close Long <ii> /iː/ <ïï> /ɯː/ <uu> /uː/
Short <i> /ɪ/ <ï> /ɤ/ <u> /ʊ/
Mid Long <ee> /eː/
<ě> /ɛː/
<oo> /oː/
<ǒ> /ɔː/
Short <e> /ɛ/ <o> /ɔ/
Open Long <aa> /æː/ <åå> /ɑː/
Short <a> /æ/ <å> /ɑ/

The language also has four diphthongs: /ɐʊ̯ ɐɪ̯/.

Dialects and accents[edit | edit source]

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